What’s meaning of Peer Review
Peer review is a term that refers to the steps that researchers go through to have their research published in an academic journal. It’s the process for ensuring that academic articles have been examined by other experts in the field before publication and peer reviewers are sometimes called referees.
Peer review is the quality control measure a publisher or journal might take to determine what to publish and what to not.
In this article we discuss relates to the scholarly review of an article for publication and mostly going to discuss it as relates to journals, but it also relates to books as well.
It is an essential step in furthering research and advancement in a particular field.
Those publications that are not peer-reviewed are held in lower esteem than those that are peer review or double peer-reviewed.
So let learn, how the peer reviews process work, we have divided this process into a five-step process:
Peer Review Process steps in Journal
Step 1. Preparation and Submission Process
Normally, the researcher does his/her research, writes a paper, and will choose an appropriate academic journal in their field, that publishes similar or related work and would like to consider for his/her research work publication.
They will go to the journal’s website and upload their manuscript, figures, tables, supplement materials; into an electronic review system or email the manuscript to the editorial office, the policy of submission of the paper stated by the publishing agency or in the author guideline section of the journal.
Step 2: Initial Editor Process
The journal editor reads the manuscript and pre-check the material provided, as in word count, the format of figure and table, etc to see whether it meets the criteria of the journal’s stated guidelines or not and decide the final result that the content provided by the author is fit or within the mission of the journal or not, by considering the journal’s definite guidelines closely.
If it doesn’t fit the criteria, back it goes to the writer with (hopefully) a polite rejection letter.
If it doesn’t follow those guidelines or meet the essential requirements of journals, then you may receive the article back to the writer with (hopefully) a polite rejection letter stating the reason for rejection clearly.
If it does meet the criteria, then the manuscript is accepted and the editor or the staff will be sent to experts in the field for peer reviewers. Talk about the peer review process
Step 3. Reviewer Process
The reviewers read the manuscript to evaluate it in terms of its purpose, scope, thesis, and outcome and started with some questions such as; is the topic worth investigating or are relevant sources being used in research, Does the evidence support the thesis, Is the thesis clearly and convincingly argued, Is the work original.
These reviewers are from the editorial board, editorial review panel, or other experts in the related field and will read the manuscript very carefully.
They will make a recommendation of accept, accept with changes, revise, reject and they will pass that material back to the journal staff or the editor of that journal. Classically, there are three reviewers but there may be more or less depending on the individual journal review policy.
Step 4: Revision or Suggestion Process
Once the reviewers have finished reading the manuscript, they send their comments to the editor who, in turn, sends the writer another letter that will either accept the paper without revisions (not likely) or will provide comments and ask for revisions based on the peer reviewer’s evaluation of the work.
If all accepted then the route is pretty clear, that your manuscript will accept for publication., it will be edited, posted online, and published.
But if the decision is mixed, in this case, the editor in chief would read the material and look at the reviews and make a decision and it may maybe revise, in which case the publisher will give the author-specific or broad suggestions of what is to be changed in a given time frame.
The author can consider these suggestions and potentially make the changes, and resubmit the manuscript and the process starts all over again as all steps mentioned above.
Step 5: Final Editor Process
Once the paper is back to the editorial office for the reviewer, the editor checks the report of all reviewers and makes the final decision. The paper is revised many times to the satisfaction of the editor and the reviewers (and this might take several re-writes) and finally, the manuscript is published.
All this peer review process is likely to be blind or anonymous to the individual author.
So, when you use peer-reviewed articles for your research papers and assignments, you are using the best data or information available upon which to base your work.
Types of peer review processes
There are generally three types of peer review processes used in the publication process in ranked or good academic journals and it is based on the identity of the author and reviewer.