Research Methodology: Definition, Types, Steps, and Best Practices

Research methodology

As a researcher, if you fail to select the right research methodology, and you may not be able to succeed in your career research

In order to succeed in your academic career, doing an intensive research is the backbone, but choosing the right research methodology is equally important as the research strategy.

In this article, we will discuss in detail definition, types of research methodology, steps involved in research methodology, and the factors that affect research methodology.

We will also put light on the best practices for conducting research, and conclude with a summary of key points and recommendations.

It’s our guarantee that after reading this article carefully you will be able to find the solution to this problem and achieve success in your research career.

Please do not hesitate to contact us by email if you have any difficulty with research or academic writing


Research methodology is a systematic approach, techniques, and procedures that researchers are used to collect, analyse, and interpret data in order to get answer of research questions or to use for testing the hypothesis.

It is a critical component of any research study, as it define the quality and reliability of the results gathered after research.

A solid methodology ensures that the research is conducted ethically, with valid and reliable data collection and analysis methods.

Types of Research Methodology

The research methodology is classified based on the approach used to collect data for research. There are some commonly used 9 types of research methodology mentioned below, but there are many more that may be appropriate for specific research questions or contexts.

1. Quantitative research methodology

In this method numerical data are collected for research through surveys, experiments, or other quantitative methods, and analysing it using statistical techniques.

Read: Quantitative Data Analysis: Definition, Methods, Types, Techniques, And Tools

2. Qualitative research methodology

It involves the collection of non-numerical data, such as text, images, or observations, and analysing it using thematic analysis or other qualitative methods.

Read: Qualitative Data Analysis: Definition, Methods, Techniques and Tools

3. Mixed methods research methodology

In this type of methodology the combination of both quantitative and qualitative methods are used to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the research topic.

4. Action research methodology

This type of methods used in research conducted in a real life situation and involve in investigate and solve the issue, address practical problems.

5. Case study methodology

This involves analysing a single case or a small group of cases in depth, with the goal of gaining insights into a specific phenomenon or problem.

6. Experimental research methodology

This method involves manipulating one or more variables to observe the effect on the outcome variable, with the goal of establishing cause-and-effect relationships.

7. Correlational research methodology

This method involves measuring the relationship between two or more variables, without manipulating them

8. Survey research methodology

This type involves collection of data from a sample of individuals using a standardized questionnaire or survey instrument.

Read: Explain Survey Research: Definition, Example, Methods, Advantages, Disadvantages

9. Ethnographic research methodology

This involves thoroughly researching a culture or social group in order to comprehend their beliefs, values, and practises.

Steps in Research Methodology

These are some basic steps involved in research methodology, but the steps and methods used may vary on the basis of research design and methodology chosen.

It is important to carefully plan and implement each step of the research methodology to ensure that the study design will produce a valid and reliable results.

#Define research questions or hypothesis

The first step in research is to clearly define the research questions or hypothesis that you want to investigate. These should be specific, measurable, and relevant to your research topic.

#Conduct literature review

The literature review is the process of examining previous research studies and relevant literature related to your research topic and it helps to identify research gaps exist, and develop a theoretical outline for your study.

Read: What Is A Literature Review And Types Of Literature Review

#Select research participants or subjects

The selection of research participants or subjects depends on the research design and methodology. You may choose to use a random sample, purposive sampling, or other sampling methods to select participants.

#Collect data

Data collection methods depend on the research design and methodology, some commonly used data collection methods are surveys, interviews, observations, and experiments. It is important to use valid and reliable data collection methods and tools.

Read: Primary Data Collection Method and Importance

#Analyse data

Data analysis involves organizing, coding, and summarizing the data collected in the research study and this step is depended on the research design and methodology used for the data collection.

Read: Data Analysis in Research and its Importance

#Interpret data

Once the data has been analysed, the next step is to interpret the findings in light of the research questions or hypothesis. This involves drawing conclusions and making recommendations based on the data.

#Ethical considerations

Ethics is a critical step of research methodology, and you must ensure and certify that the your research conducted in accordance with ethical guidelines.

Factors Affecting Research Methodology

There are 6 main factors that can affect research methodology and is important for researchers to carefully consider these factors when designing and conducting a research study to produce valid and reliable result.

1. Research question or hypothesis

Research questions or hypotheses used should be brief, clear, and simple to grasp. It should guide the research study by setting the direction for data collection and analysis

A research question is a statement that seeks to explore a topic in-depth. Usually starts with “what,” “how,” or “why,” etc . For example, “Effect of social media on the mental health of teenagers”

A hypothesis is a statement that estimate a relationship between two or more variables. It is a testable statement that is based on existing theories, literature, or observations. For example, “Using social media more frequently is associated with higher levels of anxiety in teenagers.”

2. Research design

The research design determines the overall structure or planning of the research study, and involve making decision about data collection, analyse data in get answer of the research question or hypothesis.

Read: Research Design And Different Types Of Research Designs Used In Academics

3. Sample size

The sample size is the number of participants or subjects included in the research study and sample size can affect the research, as larger sample sizes may require more time and resources to collect and analyse data.

3. Data collection methods

The choice of methods used for data collection can also affect the research methodology. For example, survey research requires a quantitative methodology and interview or observation research require a qualitative method.

Read: Secondary Data Collection, Its Sources And best Method Of Collection

4. Researcher’s expertise

Researcher’s expertise refers to the knowledge, skills, and experience that a researcher has in a particular area of research. This expertise can affect the research design, methodology, and interpretation of results

5. Available resources

The resources available to conduct the research study, including funding, time, and equipment, can also affect the choice of research methodology.

6. Ethical attentions

Ethical attentions can also affect the choice of research methodology. For example, a research study that involves vulnerable populations may require a qualitative methodology that allows for more in-depth understanding of the participants’ experiences.

Best Practices for Research Methodology

There are several best practices that to ensure the quality and validity of research methodology, few of them are listed below and you can use them to achieve high-quality research findings.

#Clearly define the research question or hypothesis

This helps to focus the research and ensures that the methodology is appropriate for the research question.

#Choose an appropriate research design

The research design should be chosen wisely and based on the research question, nature of the variables used in you study.

#Use a representative sample

It means selecting a group of people who accurately reflect the population being studied and helps researchers to make accurate conclusions about the entire population

#Ensure ethical conduct

Researchers should follow ethical guidelines for research, including informed consent, confidentiality, and protection of human subjects.

#Ensure data quality

Researchers should take steps to ensure the quality of the data, including data cleaning and checking for error and outliers.

#Analyse the data appropriately

The data should be analysed using appropriate statistical tools, methods to check the validity of the findings.

#Report the results clearly and accurately

Clear reporting involves presenting the data result in a way that is easy to understand, using tables, graphs, and charts etc and it is essential to ensure that the findings are correctly understood and applied.


In conclusion, the research methodology is an essential part of the research process, as it helps and approprate method guarantee that the research is conducted in a systematic and carefully manner.

You must select a suitable research methodology for your research objectives and the type of data collected.

Following best practices such as ensuring the validity and reliability of research methods and data, and taking ethical considerations into account can help to note that research studies are conducted in a effective manner.

By carefully considering research methodology, researchers can ensure that their research studies are conducted in a way that produces accurate and reliable results which is beneficial for other

Wrapping Up

This is all about this article and we hope that this article will provide a brief explanation about research methedology, its type, steps, and best Practicesis that you will be able to use in research.

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General FAQ related to Research Methodology

Q 1. What is research methodology

Research methodology is a systematic approach, techniques, and procedures that researchers are used to collect, analyse, and interpret data in order to get answer of research questions or to use for testing the hypothesis.

Q 2. What are the different types of research methodology

There are some common 9 types of research methodology i.., quantitative, qualitative, mixed-methods, case study, action, correlational, Ethnographic, survey and experimental research.

Q 3. How do you choose the right research methodology

It involves considering various factors, such as the research problem, research question, research design, data collection methods, data analysis techniques, and research resources

Q 4. What is the importance of research methodology in research

Research methodology is imortant in research because it provides a systematic and scientific approach to conducting research and helps researchers to identify the research problem, design a study.