Descriptive Data Analysis: Definition, method with examples and importance

Descriptive Data Analysis

If you are a researcher or a data analyst, you should be aware of what descriptive data analysis is and how it is carried out

If a reader takes a little time to read this article with dedication, he or she will be able to gain a much better understanding of the concept of descriptive data analysis much more quickly.

The purpose of this article is to provide a brief description of what descriptive data analysis is, how it works, and why it is important in the research process.

We hope that after reading this article, you will be able to use these methods in your own research, as well as getting your research accepted in the very near future

In case you find any difficulty during the research and publication process, please do not hesitate to contact us by email

The analysis of data is one of the most important parts of any research process and it has been seen that after sucessfull collection of data, when data is not analyzed properly, it can be overwhelming, confusing, and even misleading the information. There are many types of analyses that are used in research and descriptive data analysis is one of them.

Read: Primary Data Collection Method and Importance

What is descriptive data analysis?

Descriptive Data Analysis is a method of analyzing data that involves summarizing and describing the key characteristics of a dataset in order to describe how the data were collected or gathered.

Using these analysis methods, researchers will be able to get an overview of the data as well as identify the key trends, patterns, and relationships between the data in order to help them make sense of it.

There are many basic questions that can be answered by descriptive data analysis, such as:

  • What is the range of values in the dataset?
  • What is the average or median value?
  • What is the most common value or category?
  • What is the variability or spread of the data?
  • Are there any outliers or unusual values?

Researchers often use descriptive data analysis as a preliminary step to formulate hypotheses for further analysis when they are analyzing data, as it allows them to identify any potential problems with the data or to formulate hypotheses for further research.

Methods of descriptive data analysis

In order to analyze descriptive data, there are several methods that can be used, such as:

#1. Measures of central tendency

In statistics, these are measures that describe the average or center value for a collection of data and help to reduse the length of a data set. Examples include the mean, median, and mode.

#2. Measures of variability

This is a statistical measure that is used to describe the dispersion or spread of a set of data and help to find out the diversity of data. Examples include range, variance, and standard deviation.

#3. Frequency distribution

There are a number of graphs that show the frequency or proportion of each value or category in the dataset based on the values they belong to and help to present the data in a visual mode. Examples include histograms, bar charts, and pie charts.

#4. Correlation analysis

It is used to determine how strong and in which direction the relationship between two variables is, as well as the strength of the relationship. In order to quantify the level of relationship between two variables, correlation coefficients, such as Pearson’s r, can be used.

Here are some examples of how descriptive data analysis can be used in order to get a better understanding of how it works.

Example 1: Survey data

Consider a scenario in which you were trying to understand the opinions of 100 people regarding a new product by conducting a survey. In the survey, you collected data by using number of factors, including age, gender, income, and rating of the product on a scale of 1 to 10, so that you could generate statistics. In order to summarize this data, you could use descriptive data analysis in the following ways:

Measures of central tendency

    As a way to determine the typical rating given by respondents to the product rating variable, you could compute the mean, median, and mode of the collcetd datae in seperate way and find out the biase and error in the data.

    Measures of variability: In order to determine how much the ratings vary among respondents for a particular product, you can calculate the range and standard deviation of the variable and find out the diversity of data.

    Frequency distributions

    It would be helpful to create a histogram or bar chart that shows the distribution of product ratings among respondents based on their responses and present in a visual mode.

    Correlation analysis

    In order to determine if there is a relationship between age and product rating, you could examine the correlation between these two variables to determine if there is an association and also find out the product review and use by age and gender wise.

    Read: Explain Survey Research

    Example 2: Sales data

    Suppose you own a store and you want to understand the sales patterns that are associated with the top-selling products that you sell in your store. Your company has compiled data over the past year on how many units have been sold each week. The following are a few ways in which you could summarize this data using descriptive data analysis:

    Measures of central tendency

    In order to figure out how many units are sold per week, you could calculate the mean, median, and mode of the number of units sold per week.

    Measures of variability

    In order to understand how much sales volume varies across weeks, you can calculate the range and standard deviation for the number of units sold per week in order to identify the variability between weeks.

    Frequency distributions

    A line chart can be used to demonstrate the trend in sales volume over time by showing the frequency distributions and help to make a comparison between the previous year’s sale and the subsequent year’s sale.

    Correlation analysis

    It is possible to examine the relationship between sales volume and external factors, such as advertising and promotions, in order to see if there is a correlation between these variables and also find out which factor more responsible for sale

    Why is descriptive data analysis important?

    The importance of descriptive data analysis can be attributed to several factors:

    • A data analysis provides a basic understanding of the data, allowing researchers to identify any potential problems or patterns that may exist in the data.
    • This can be used as a means of summarizing data in a manner that is easy to understand and that is accessible to others as well.
    • Using inferential statistics or hypothesis testing, it provides a basis for further analysis such as inferential statistics or hypothesis testing.
    • You can use it to communicate results to other people, such as stakeholders or policymakers, in order to inform them of the findings.

    Read: Steps in Process of Data Analysis


    There can be no doubt that descriptive data analysis is an important part of any research process. This method can be used to identify any potential problems or patterns in a dataset as well as to help researchers understand the basic features of the dataset.

    A descriptive data analysis is one of the most important tools for researchers and analysts who want to understand and summarize data in a meaningful way.

    In order to gain valuable insights into the key features of a dataset, researchers can use measures of central tendency, variability, frequency distributions, and correlation analysis etc which are the parts of the descriptive data analysis.

    Regardless of whether you are working with survey data, sales data, or any other type of data, descriptive data analysis is an essential step in the analysis process, no matter what type of data you are working with.

    As a result of descriptive data analysis, researchers are able to summarize data in a way that is easily understandable and accessible to other researchers, so that this data can be further analyzed and communicated to others.

    Wrapping Up

    This is all about this article and we hope that this article will provides you a brief explanation of what descriptive data analysis is, how it works, and why it is so important, and that you will be able to use these methods to analyze your research data for your research.

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    General FAQ related to descriptive data analysis

    Q 1. What do you mean by descriptive data analysis

    Data analysis that summarizes and describes key characteristics of a dataset is referred to as descriptive data analysis.

    Q 2. Best methods of data collection in descriptive research

    Observation is best and often used methods of data collection in descriptive research

    Q 3. Can we use descriptive analysis for any data set

    Mainly the use of descriptive analysis is to describe quantitative data only

    Q 4. Describe the main purpose of descriptive analysis.

    A descriptive statistic provides us an information about the data set